Standards for High Quality Post-Concussion Services and Concussion Clinics (2017), published by Concussions Ontario.
Many parents who bring children to the ED following a possible concussion are likely to expect comprehensive and definitive care, including imaging, a definitive diagnosis, a timeline for return to activity, and a signed return to play form. To manage these expectations, healthcare providers should continue to educate parents about the evaluation and management of concussion.
Post-traumatic headache “is an important health problem with a significant impact on long-term outcome of TBI patients. Several risk factors were identified, which can aid in early identification of subjects at risk for PTH.”
“In a preliminary study of middle school, high school, and collegiate student-athletes, SES [“socioeconomic status”] had no impact on the outcomes of symptom duration and missed practice. However, for individuals with private insurance, the return to school was slower than for those with public insurance. This pilot study reveals the complex relationship between SES and SRC [“sports-related concussion”] recovery, which demands further study with more accurate and validated assessments of SES.”
“The literature on clinical recovery from sport-related concussion has grown dramatically, is mostly mixed, but some factors have emerged as being related to outcome.”
“This systematic review recommends that in children: child and adolescent age specific paradigms should be applied; child-validated symptom rating scales should be used; the widespread routine use of baseline computerised neuropsychological tests (CNT) is not recommended; the expected duration of symptoms associated with sports-related concussion (SRC) is less than 4 weeks; prolonged recovery be defined as symptomatic for greater than 4 weeks; a brief period of cognitive and physical rest should be followed with gradual symptom-limited physical and cognitive activity; all schools be encouraged to have a concussion policy and should offer appropriate academic accommodations and support to students recovering from SRC; and children and adolescents should not return to sport (RTSp) until they have successfully returned to school, however early introduction of symptom-limited physical activity is appropriate”.
“Progress has been made to prevent motor-vehicle crashes, resulting in a decrease in the number of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)-related hospitalizations and deaths from 2007 to 2013. However, during the same time, the number and rate of older adult fall-related TBIs have increased substantially. Although considerable public interest has focused on sports-related concussion in youth, the findings in this report suggest that TBIs attributable to older adult falls, many of which result in hospitalization and death, should receive public health attention.”
“The Neurological Alliance Australia (NAA) believes that the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) will transform the lives of people living with progressive neurodegenerative diseases and has promoted and supported the Scheme since its inception. To date some NDIS participants have received plans that have had positive, life-changing impacts on their lives, however, many others have received insufficient plans that will adversely affect their quality of life and place some at risk of avoidable hospitalisation.” The NAA comprises ten peak national bodies, including Brain Injury Australia.
The diagnosis of Alzheimer’s is among the most challenging to handle. The person’s memory deteriorates over time and they eventually become unable to perform simple daily activities such as brushing their teeth, going to the bathroom, and taking a shower, among others.
This resource, produced by the National Organization for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (NOFASD), the “national peak organisation representing the interests of individuals and families living with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD)”, aims to assist teachers and educators to understand the challenges that children with FASD face in learning.
“Many students do not receive return to learn (RTL) services upon return to academics following a concussion. Washington State [in the US] children have unmet needs upon returning to public schools after concussion. The student-centered RTL model and checklist for implementing RTL guidelines can help schools provide timely RTL services following concussion.”
The results of this study suggest that early follow-up of at risk patients can have a positive influence on patients’ well-being, and that low-intensive, low-cost telephone counseling is more effective than a psychological intervention at improving outcomes.
“Predictors of outcomes after inpatient rehabilitation differed by sex, providing evidence for a sex-specific approach in planning and resource allocation for inpatient rehabilitation services for patients with TBI.”
“Our empirical data confirm that SBS [“Shaken Baby Syndrome”] and AHT [“Abusive Head Trauma”] are still generally accepted by physicians who frequently encounter suspected child abuse cases, and are considered likely sources of subdural hematoma, severe retinal hemorrhages, and coma or death in young children. Other than a high-velocity motor vehicle collision, no alternative theories of causation for these findings are generally accepted.”
“For the 5-15% of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) who will have lingering physical, behavioral, or cognitive problems 3 to 6 months after their injury, identification of this at-risk population is essential for early intervention. Existing models used to predict poor outcomes after mTBI are unsatisfactory, according to a new study, and new, more relevant predictive factors are different than those used in cases of moderate or severe TBI, as described in the study published in Journal of Neurotrauma, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers.”
A research thesis on Traumatic Brain Injury entitled, “Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation and Compensation: Survivors’ Perspectives.”
“The 2017 Concussion in Sport Group (CISG) consensus statement is designed to build on the principles outlined in the previous statements 1–4 and to develop further conceptual understanding of sport-related concussion (SRC) using an expert consensus-based approach. This document is developed for physicians and healthcare providers who are involved in athlete care, whether at a recreational, elite or professional level.”
“The Concussion Recognition Tool 5 (CRT5) is the most recent revision of the Pocket Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 that was initially introduced by the Concussion in Sport Group in 2005. The CRT5 is designed to assist non-medically trained individuals to recognise the signs and symptoms of possible sport-related concussion and provides guidance for removing an athlete from play/sport and to seek medical attention. This paper presents the development of the CRT5 and highlights the differences between the CRT5 and prior versions of the instrument.”
“This paper presents the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 5th Edition (SCAT5), which is the most recent revision of a sport concussion evaluation tool for use by healthcare professionals in the acute evaluation of suspected concussion. The revision of the SCAT3 (first published in 2013) culminated in the SCAT5. The SCAT5 is intended for use in those who are 13 years of age or older.”
“This article presents the Child Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 5th Edition (Child SCAT5). Following the 4th International Consensus Conference, held in Zurich, Switzerland, in 2012, the SCAT 3rd edition (Child SCAT3) was developed for children aged between 5 and12 years. Research to date was reviewed and synthesised for the 5th International Consensus Conference on Concussion in Sport in Berlin, Germany, leading to the current revision of the test, the Child SCAT5.”
“TBI Express is a communication-training program for people with traumatic brain injury, their families, friends and carers.”
This excellent documentary series produced by AttitudeLive in New Zealand shows the challenges of rehabilitation from a brain injury.
“We represent the more than 353,800 Australians living with dementia and the estimated 1.2 million Australians involved in their care. We advocate for the needs of people living with all types of dementia, and for their families and carers, and provide support services, education and information. Alzheimer’s Australia is a member of Alzheimer’s Disease International, the umbrella organisation of Alzheimer’s Associations around the world.”
Australian Institute of Sport and Australian Medical Association Concussion in Sport Position Statement (2016). “This Position Statement is intended to ensure that participant safety and welfare is paramount when dealing with concussion in sport.”
“The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) is used for assessing athletes for concussion. SCAT3 is used in athletes aged 13 years and older, and it supersedes the original SCAT and the SCAT2, published in 2005 and 2009. The SCAT3 is designed for use by medical professionals.”
“The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) is used for assessing athletes for concussion. The Child-Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) 3 is used for evaluating injured children aged from 5 to 12 years, for concussion. The Child-SCAT3 is designed for use by medical professionals.”
A guide to the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) 3 for doctors: The “Concussion in Sport Education Package for Doctors SCAT3 Guide.”
“CANS is used to measure the level of support needs of older adolescents (16 years or older) and adults with Traumatic Brain Injury.”
“As individual parts of the brain controls the various things that we do, some of the following experiences may occur, or they may not. Each person is unique and consequently may not ever undergo any of these changes.”
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